It is known that the main manifestation of epilepsy are seizures, often with a fall. It is no coincidence that in ancient times this disease was called “falling disease”. Many people are used to believing that an epileptic seizure is a situation when a person suddenly screams, loses consciousness, falls, arches the torso, stiffness in the arms and legs with twitches, bite of the tongue, cheeks, involuntary urination, everything looks extremely dramatic.
There are many such examples in the literature. The well-known Prince Myshkin from the novel “The Idiot”, Smerdyakov from the novel “The Brothers Karamazov” by F. Dostoevsky, according to the description, suffered from epilepsy with similar conditions and use https://pillintrip.com/medicine/tylenol. True, the anti-hero of the “Karamazovs” could perfectly simulate even an epilogue. By all characteristics, these are the same generalized tonic-clonic seizures that were previously called grand mal or “large, deployed”, and now they have been renamed “bilateral”, i.e. due to the involvement of both hemispheres of the brain.
But still, a large number of epileptic conditions, seizures can manifest themselves in a completely different way. These are the so-called “ideas” – momentary gaze stops, eye aversion, smacking mouth movements, individual twitching of the muscles of the face, arms, legs, inability to hold objects due to involuntary muscle contractions, sudden knocking of the legs like a sharp blow, sleep disturbance with various motor phenomena. It even happens that an epileptic paroxysm is hidden under the mask of enuresis. There are a great many examples.
It is impossible not to say about psychotic, hallucinatory states that can occur in the structure of epileptic disorders and be seizures. For example, a distorted perception of objects (unusually large, with altered shapes), a feeling of strange smells, a violation of behavior with aggression, some deja vu and much more.
In children, there are combinations of mental and speech developmental delays in the structure of epileptogenic processes in the complete absence of seizures as such. At the same time, non-epileptic disorders of consciousness (deep syncope, cardiogenic syncope) can give a picture similar to an epileptic seizure. Thus, a variety of paroxysms with loss of consciousness or without impaired awareness (as they say now) require the attention of doctors, especially children, since it is known that epilepsy “comes from childhood.”
In adults, an epileptic attack for the first time is often noted against the background of structural disorders of the brain (consequences of neurotrauma, strokes, the presence of neoplasms, cysts). In women, the so-called catamenial epilepsy associated with the menstrual cycle is considered separately.