The most important value for a person is health. The preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) states: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not just the absence of disease or physical defects.
In the biomedical literature there are various definitions of health, each of which emphasizes the importance of a particular aspect in the complex characteristics of this state of the body. From the definitions of health, it is clear that it reflects the quality of adaptation of the body to the environment and represents the outcome of the process of interaction between man and environment. It is also obvious that the state of health is formed as a result of the interaction of exogenous (natural and social) and endogenous factors (heredity, constitution, gender, age).
The most complete description of the concept of health is given in the definition of one of the founders of the science of health Petlenko V.P.: “Health is a normal psychosomatic state of a person, able to realize his potential of bodily and spiritual forces and optimally meet the system of material, spiritual and social needs.
Health is a multi-component concept. It is reasonable to highlight the following health components.
Somatic health – the current state of organs and systems of the human body. The basis of somatic health is the biological program of individual development. This development program is mediated by the basic needs that dominate at different stages of ontogenesis. The basic needs, on the one hand, serve as a trigger mechanism for human development (formation of somatic health), and on the other hand, provide individualization of this process.
Physical health is the most important component in the complex structure of human health. It is determined by the properties of the organism as a complex biological system. As a biological system, an organism has integral qualities, which are not possessed by its separate constituent elements (cells, tissues, organs and organ systems). These elements are out of touch with each other and cannot support individual existence.
In addition, the body has the ability to maintain individual existence through self-organization. Self-organization includes the ability to self-renew, self-regulation and self-recovery.
Self-renewal is connected with the constant mutual exchange of substance, energy and information between an organism and its environment. The human body is an open type system. In the process of self-renewal, the body maintains its order and prevents its destruction.
Physical health is conditioned by the body’s ability to self-regulate. The perfect coordination of all functions is the consequence that a living organism is a self-regulating system. Self-regulation is the essence of the biological form of development, i.e. life. This general property of biological systems allows to establish and maintain at a certain, relatively constant level, certain physiological, biochemical or other biological indicators (constants), such as constancy of body temperature, blood pressure, blood glucose, etc. Maintaining the degree of order is manifested in the relative dynamic constancy of the body’s internal environment – homeostasis (homeostasis; buckwheat homoios – similar, similar + buckwheat stasis – standing, immobility).