Renal failure in adults

Everyone has two kidneys, and even if one works worse, the other partially takes over its function. If both organs are damaged at the same time, you can develop kidney failure. And this is very serious. Some doctors prescribe:

Renal failure can be chronic – it develops in 40% of patients with serious kidney pathologies. Acute failure occurs in about 200 people per 1 million of the world’s population.

What is kidney fa

If the kidneys for any reason do not cope with all their duties of filtering blood, removal of excess fluid and waste metabolites, the body suffers from intoxication. This condition is called renal failure.

The pathology is divided into two types – acute and chronic. The differences are in the timing and severity of changes, their possible reversibility.

Acute renal failure (acronym for ARF) is an acute and severe kidney damage that occurs within days or weeks of the disease. With ARF, if treated in time, the changes can be reversible. That is, kidney function can be returned to normal. But it is not always possible, the pathology can flow into a chronic process.

Chronic renal failure (today, doctors have replaced this term with chronic kidney disease or CKD) is a slowly developing changes, due to which the kidneys are damaged irreversibly. The pathology can develop from a few months (more than 3) to several years.

Important: Renal failure is talked about when both organs are damaged. When one kidney is affected, the second compensates for the problems, people can feel quite normal and live without any problems.
Causes of renal failure in adults
– Presently kidney diseases and kidney insufficiency along with cardiovascular and oncological diseases are the main causes of disability and mortality, – says doctor-nephrologist Natalia Meteleva. – The causes of renal failure are varied.

In addition to primary kidney disease (glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, hereditary nephropathy), hypertension and metabolic disorders (diabetes mellitus, obesity, gout), inflammatory diseases, use of certain medications and many other factors lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. And the kidneys were also one of the main organs affected by the new coronavirus infection.
Symptoms of renal failure in adults
Symptoms will largely depend on the type of pathology, stage of failure and additional health problems present.

If it is ARF, its first manifestation is a sharp reduction in the volume of urine excreted per day or its complete absence (anuria).

With CKD, symptoms occur gradually, slowly. In the early stage, they are noted:

Inability of the kidneys to reduce the production of urine at night, which causes patients to frequently get up to go to the bathroom at night;

The volume of urine excreted at night and during the day is about equal or even more at night.

As the kidneys become more damaged, the filtration and excretion functions suffer. The acid-alkaline balance of the

blood changes, acidification (acidosis) occurs, and salts, nitrogenous substances, phosphorus, and urea accumulate in the body. This condition is called uremia. It’s characterized by:

reduced appetite or a complete aversion to food;
general malaise, weakness, apathy;
a strong thirst;
an unpleasant taste in the mouth;
memory problems;
sleep disturbances;
Low body temperature (less than 36.0 °C);
nausea or vomiting.

If treatment does not work, toxic substances accumulate, the nervous system is damaged, and lethargy, muscle twitching, seizures, vomiting, and frequent diarrhea may occur. Ammonia or urine may be smelled from the skin and mouth. There may be signs of stomatitis, gastritis, tracheitis, or pericarditis. If the lungs are affected, shortness of breath may occur.

In the final stages, “uremic hoarfrost” may appear in the nose, neck and chin, with urea crystals showing through. Hypotension and confusion may occur. Fatal outcome due to development of uremic coma is possible.

People with severe CKD have severe anemia, brittle bones, heart problems and edema, and internal organ damage.